Abstract:2061 species of higher spore, gymnospermaceous and flowering plants belonging to 144 families and 764 genera have been established in the flora of the region. Herbariums based on a large number of collected plants were prepared and handed over to the Herbarium Found of the Institute of Botany of ANAS. 39 rare, endangered and 17 endemic plant species were identified. The stock of 40 species has decreased noticeably, 16 species are on the verge of extinction there, 5 species are under the threat of complete destruction and 17 species reduce their range in recent years. The composition and structure of the vegetation cover of the region under the influence of a complex of ecological, technogene, zoogenic and anthropogenic factors has changed greatly, where urgent measures for their improvement and protection are required for further use.


Abstract:Introduction: Diabetes is a prevalent disease at the world level and impacts various systems and organs such as the prostate.\n\nStudy aims: The study aimed to explore the localization and expression of iNOS and p53 in the prostate tissue of rats with induced diabetes.\n\nMethodology: We conducted a type 1 diabetes model in albino rats. A total of 20 rats were included and subdivided into two groups, the control group and diabetic group. Each group included 10 rats. One dose of alloxan monohydrate (Sigma-Aldrich) was given as 150 mg/kg for 12 hours fasting mice. Diabetes was indicated if blood glucose concentration was ≥200 mg/dl. The duration of the experiment was one month followed by termination of rats and taking prostate samples for routine histologic examination and immunohistochemical expression of iNOS and p53.\n \n\nResults: Study findings pointed out to the existence of some changes in the prostate of diabetic rats, including deterioration of the prostate architecture and increased spaces between glandular structures. The mean expression rate of iNOS and p53 in prostate tissue was significantly higher in the diabetic group in comparison with the control group (p<0.001).\n\nConclusions: The data of this study pointed out to the occurrence of diabetic impacts on prostate tissue that may be explained by iNOS and p53 increasing reactivity.

Title: Reconceptualising Assessment Strategies in the Postgraduate Diploma Programme: A Conflict Perspective

Abstract:This theoretical paper problematises and critiques extant literature on assessment techniques and key principles that have historically undergirded assessment strategies in the Postgraduate Diploma Programme. The purpose of this scholarly effort was to glean key assessment principles that, in turn, could serve as a theoretical base upon which assessment practices of one such programmes are critically analysed using the conflict theory. A conflict theory posits that education sustains and perpetuates social inequality. In this paper, we argue that one key aspect of education that plays a major role in perpetuating social inequality is assessment, as it serves to differentiate learners into categories of passing and failure, which ultimately decides who access social privileges and resources. In this paper, a Postgraduate Diploma Programme serves as a case study better to understand key assessment principles that undergird this program\'s assessment strategies and how such principles contribute, in the final analysis, to generating social inequality through denying students access to the means of gaining resources and other social privileges. This paper also provides contours of reconceptualising assessment in such a way as to allow educational programmes to pursue key ideals of social justice.

Title: How Do You Really Feel? Effect of Employers\' and Employees\' Political Skill Congruence on Employee\'s Negative Affectivity

Abstract:Based on research on similarity–attraction and political skill relationships, this study explores the effect of dyadic employer– employee political skill congruence on followers’ negative affectivity. We used response surface and polynomial regression analysis to more precisely elucidate this effect, examining the degrees of congruence between different political skill levels and alignments between them. Research data were collected from 285 employer– employee dyads in 95 teams at 5 chain tea-vending companies in Taiwan. The results indicated the following: (1) followers’ negative affectivity is lower when employer and employee political skill are congruent. (2) In cases of congruence, followers’ negative affectivity is lower when employer and employee political skill are both high. (3) In cases of incongruence, there is no significant difference in the level of followers’ negative affectivity in either scenario. This study reveals the necessity of employer and employee political skill congruence and makes a contribution to the literature on negative affectivity.

Title: PTTG3P Up-regulation Might be a Novel Common Diagnostic and Prognostic Potential Biomarker of Survival in Esophageal and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

Abstract:Purpose: A little has been reported earlier regarding PTTG3P dysregulation in human cancers. Present study was therefore planned to investigate the PTTG3P expression level and explore its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using multi-layered bioinformatics approach. Materials and Methods: PTTG3P mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Furthermore, its potential prognostic values were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the PTTG3P related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between PTTG3P expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a gene-drug interaction network analysis was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. Results: The PTTG3P was commonly up-regulated in the majority of human cancers and its up-regulation was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of esophageal carcinoma (ESCA) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). The PTTG3P was also found up-regulated in ESCA and HNSC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of PTTG3P in different diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between PTTG3P expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted a few drugs through gene-drug interaction analysis that could be used in the treatment of ESCA and HNSC by regulating the PTTG3P expression. Conclusion: Our findings suggested PTTG3P as a good diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of survival in ESCA and HNSC.

Title: No Association Between Human Papillomavirus and Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Systematic Meta-analysis based Evaluation

Abstract:Objectives: The involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) has effectively been decoded in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) worldwide with contradicting findings. Although the different groups of researchers explored the potential association of HPV with NPC using statistical meta-analysis, the association remained still controversial due to the major shortcomings of meta-analysis. Therefore, we arranged the present study to investigate a potential link of HPV with NPC using an additional method (Bradford Hill criteria) which helps to get a more clear picture. Methods: Initially using PubMed, we extracted all of the studies that associated HPV to NPC. Then, to assess the potential association of HPV with NPC, an examination of the available data on HPV in NPC, normal/benign samples was done using all the major Bradford Hill criteria postulates. Furthermore, to improve the authenticity of our findings, we have also critically evaluated the methodologies of the identified studies to check the possibility of false-negative and false-positive results. Results: After a careful assessment of the previous studies against Bradford Hill criteria postulates, we observed that all the major postulates were not fulfilled including strength, temporality, consistency, plausibility, biological gradient, experiment, specificity, and analogy. Conclusion: Therefore, our findings recommended no casual association of HPV with NPC.

Title: Hand Washing Behavior among Mothers and Caregivers of Infants in Abashawl Sub-Zone, Asmara: A Qualitative Study

Abstract:ABSTRACT\nObjective: This study was aimed to explore the drivers of hand washing behavior among mothers \nand caregivers of infants in Aba-shawl sub zone, Asmara, Eritrea. Methodology: A qualitative \nstudy was conducted from July to December 2019 in Aba-shawl sub-zone, Asmara. All \nparticipants in this study were selected using chain referral sampling. In-depth interviews were \nconducted on twenty mothers and caregivers of infants. Focus group discussion was done in \nEdaga Hamus Hospital with eight mothers of infants from Aba-shawl subzone and two key \ninformants were interviewed; one health professional from Edaga-hamus Hospital, and one \nadministrator of Aba-shawl subzone. In addition to that the researchers observed the general \nconditions of the community including cleanliness, availability and accessibility of water, toilet and \nother cleaning facilities. Results: The barriers to hand washing behavior identified in this society \nwere; new responsibilities of nurturing an infant, increased workload when nurturing an infant in \naddition to rearing other children, lack of affordability of hand washing materials for frequent use, \nlack of hand washing materials in the locations where they spend most of their time, elders\' fear \nof excessive exposure to water and thereby opposing frequent hand washing behavior of mothers \nand caregivers of infants. Motivators of hand washing behavior include; mothers’ and caregivers’ \nperceptions of good motherhood, perception that soap is necessary to clean hands particularly \nfor visual dirt and improving the smell of hands, support from husbands and other family members, \navailability of soap and close proximity of water and hand washing station and other hand \nwashing facilities, perceived benefit of hand washing for prevention of childhood illnesses \nprimarily diarrhea and other enteric problems, verbal cues from close ones regarding hand \nwashing before and after breastfeeding, and environmental factors like the overall conditions of \nthe study site. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that there are sizable opportunities to \nimprove hand washing behavior among mothers and caregivers of infants in Aba-shawl sub-zone. \nFocusing on the specific barriers and motivators of hand washing prevailing in the study area, \nresponsible authorities need to scale-up their efforts to improve mothers and care givers hand \nwashing behavior.

Title: Retrospective analysis to assess the Role of Mast Cells in Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Abstract:Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant neoplasm arising from the oral mucosal epithelium which constitutes around 90% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells play a significant part in tumor progression and in metastasis. Objectives: To investigate and compare the number, morphology, and topographical spread of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases and correlate diverse types of mast cells with the inflammatory infiltrate. Material and Methods: From each block of 45 paraffin blocks of different grades of OSCC two sections were made. One section was stained by hematoxylin and eosin and another section were stained by toluidine blue stain. The slides were then analyzed under a microscope and mast cells were counted in five different zones in all sections starting from sub epithelial connective tissue using the image analyzer software with the graticule. One way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The numbers of mast cells were significantly more in moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as compared to well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and control groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: An increased number of typical (TMCs), atypical (AMCs) and Granular (GMCs) mast cell in more inflamed areas contribute to the active participation of mast cells in various phases of the inflammatory process manifested by their degranulation. This study reveals that there is a definitive increase in mast cell count when compared to normal mucosa substantiating their contributing role in tumor progression.

Title: Raman gain coefficients of semiconductor magneto-plasmas

Abstract:Assuming that the origin of stimulated Raman scattering lies in third-order (Raman) susceptibility arising due to nonlinear induced polarization, we obtained expressions for Raman gain coefficients (steady-state and transient) of weakly-polar semiconductors magneto-plasmas under various geometrical configurations. The threshold pump intensity and optimum pulse duration for the onset of transient SRS have been estimated. For numerical calculations, we consider n-InSb crystal at 77K temperature as a Raman active medium irradiated by a pulsed CO2 laser. The dependence of Raman gain coefficients on doping concentration, external magnetostatic field and its inclination, scattering angle and pump pulse duration have been explored in detail with aim to determine suitable values of these controllable parameters to enhance Raman gain coefficients at lower threshold intensities, and to search the feasibility of efficient semiconductor nonlinear devices based on Raman nonlinearities. Most expectedly, the technological potentiality of weakly-polar semiconductor magneto-plasmas as hosts for compression of scattered pulses and fabrication of efficient nonlinear devices such as frequency converters, Raman amplifiers and oscillators etc. based on Raman nonlinearities have been established.

Title: Extracts Obtained from Organs of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Alter Growth and Seed Germination of Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli

Abstract:With the aim of examining the allelopathic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. ), two experiments have been separately carried out on the Chenopodium album L. and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv weeds. The experiment was done as factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications and different levels of aqueous extract of organs (leaf, corm and a combination of leaf and corm) and concentration of the extract (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). The results showed that seed germination of both weeds was significantly affected by the organs and concentration of saffron extracts. The highest germination rate of Chenopodium album was 2.38 seeds per day in the application of corms extract and the lowest germination rate was 2.12 seeds per day in the application of combination leaf and corm extract. The highest seed vigor index of Chenopodium album was 12 in the application of leaf extract and the lowest was 9 obtained in the application of leaf and corm extracts. In addition in Chenopodium album application of the highest concentration of the extract (20 %) led to the lowest weight of root, stem, seedlings, germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor index, and number of normal seeds. In Echinochloa crus-galli seed, increasing in the concentration of the extract from 0 to 20% enhanced the mean germination time from 3.4 in control sample to 4.1 day in the application of 20 % extracts. All the applied extracts obtained from different saffron organs caused a significant reduction in germination traits in both species of weeds. Meanwhile the extracts of leaf and corm indicated the highest effects. Meanwhile the extracts of leaf and corm indicated the highest effects. Generally, results showed that the application of 20% extract obtained from combination of leaf and corm tissue provided the highest growth inhibition and germination rate in both weeds.